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Microbiology Australia Microbiology Australia
Issue 1

Mammalian Microbiomes

Vertical Transmission

Along with all the sciences, our discipline is evolving quickly in all areas from pure research to applied and professional. The ASM was formed more than half a century ago to promote the discipline of microbiology and its role is now more important than ever. The national leadership is conscious of the need to adapt and change and has been moving in the past few years to do so, with gathering momentum. One of our most important platforms is our national meeting, developed to promote the exchange of ideas. The membership of the society is in...

Mammalian microbiomes

Endothermic (an organism that maintains its body at a metabolically favourable temperature) amniotes (who lay their eggs on land or retain the fertilised egg within the mother), also known as mammals, count among their cohort the largest (whales) and the most intelligent (some primates, cetaceans and elephants) animals on Earth. However, none of the 5488 mammalian species live alone since they all support a complex menagerie of microbes including prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea), microbial eukaryotes, and viruses. That so-call...

Methane matters in animals and man: from beginning to end

Methanogenic archaea resident in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract have long been recognised for their capacity to participate in interspecies hydrogen transfer, with commensurate positive effects on plant biomass conversion. However, there is also still much to learn about these methanogenic archaea in regards to their metabolic versatility, host adaptation, and immunogenic properties that is of relevance to host health and nutrition.

The marine mammal microbiome: current knowledge and future directions

Marine mammals are globally significant because of their sensitivity to environmental change and threatened status, often serving as ‘ecosystem sentinels’. Disease is a major cause of marine mammal population decline and the role of the microbiome in disease has generated considerable interest. Recent research in humans has greatly enhanced our understanding of how the host-associated microbial community, the microbiome, affects host health. In this review, we provide an overview of the extent of the marine mammal microbiome wi...

The role of the gut microbiome in host systems

The presence of microbes exerts such a profound influence on animals that they are best considered holobionts – an organism comprised of multiple biological partners. The concept of dysbiosis is disease states that result from undesirable interactions between the partners in a holobiont. Many molecular mechanisms that link the gut microbiome with host health and disease have now been established and these are giving rise to new insights in healthcare. In essence these studies show that our microbiome is so closely intertwined with our...

Modulation of the rumen microbiome

A combination of animal genetics and the unique, enlarged fore-stomach of ruminants (rumen) enable domesticated ruminants to be sustained on forages and fibrous feedstuffs that would be otherwise indigestible. Ruminants can also utilise more easily digestible, high energy plant material such as grain, to achieve rapid increases in weight gain, muscle bulk and in the case of dairy cows, high milk yields. Since the mid-1900s there has been a steady research effort into understanding the digestive processes of ruminants, striving to maintain an...

Polymicrobial nature of chronic oral disease

Recent microbiome studies have shown that the human oral microbiome is composed of over 260 abundant bacterial species that predominantly live as polymicrobial biofilms accreted to the non-shedding hard surfaces of the teeth. In addition representatives of both Archaea and Fungi are found in the oral cavity and there is considerable colonisation of the soft tissues of the mouth. Most of these species are commensal and form complex biofilm communities that restrict the colonisation of the oral cavity by exogenous bacteria. Changes in the poly...

Gastrointestinal microbiota, diet and brain functioning

A growing interest for research in the relationship between the gastrointestine (GI), GI microbiota, health and disease is due to the potential for research identifying intervention strategies. Preclinical and clinical studies have indicated that initial colonisation of bacteria in the GI tract can affect the individual's health condition in later life. Diet is an influential factor in modulating this complex ecosystem and consequently can help to modulate physiological conditions. The broader role of the GI microbiota in modulation of patho...

Marsupial oral cavity microbiome

The oral microbiome of humans and animals will cause oral disease within their lifetimes and include a large number of endogenous cariogenic, periodontal and other opportunistic pathogens. Studies over many decades have attempted to determine which bacteria are involved in oral diseases. Earlier studies used exclusively culture-based methods. Now culture-independent methods are being used to determine the composition of the microbiome in health and disease. There have been limited numbers of studies of the marsupial microbiome and this repor...

Relative abundance of Mycobacterium in ovine Johne's disease

No study has determined what proportion of the total microbiota comprises the genus Mycobacterium in ovine Johne's disease (OJD) tissues. We aimed to assess the relative abundance of Mycobacterium in the ileocaecal lymph node, involved and uninvolved ileal mucosa from sheep with and without OJD, using three extraction methods. Eight sheep, four with and four without OJD, were recruited. Pyrosequencing of the 16Sr RNA gene amplicons for all samples revealed that Mycobacterium represented between 0-92% (average 38%) of the...

Interactions with other microbiology societies through Microbiology Australia

ASM History SIG: Microbiology Australia

Recent developments in virology by Australian researchers

Clinical Serology and Molecular SIG

Report from the ASM Antimicrobial Special Interest Group (ASIG)

Volume 36 Number 1

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